Parasitic gastroenteritis in sheep and goats: aspects of control

Parasitic gastroenteritis in sheep and goats: aspects of control free pdf ebook was written by Nadins on September 28, 2007 consist of 30 page(s). The pdf file is provided by www.bva.co.uk and available on pdfpedia since February 19, 2012.

1 presentation at bva congress 27-29 september 2007 belfast, north of ireland please note: while this presentation may be quoted from it cannot be reprinted in full ...

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Parasitic gastroenteritis in sheep and goats: aspects of control pdf




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Parasitic gastroenteritis in sheep and goats: aspects of control - page 1
Presentation at BVA Congress 27-29 September 2007 Belfast, North of Ireland PLEASE NOTE: While this presentation may be quoted from it cannot be reprinted in full without the permission of the author and the BVA Parasitic gastroenteritis in sheep and goats: aspects of control Bob Coop and Frank Jackson Moredun Research Institute Edinburgh 1
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Parasitic gastroenteritis in sheep and goats: aspects of control - page 2
Internal Parasitic Diseases in Lambs Lambing Coccidia Nematodirus Teladorsagia Haemonchus Trichostrongylus Fluke Acute Chronic Spring Summer Autumn Winter GI nematode infections can cause: Reduction in feed intake (10-40%) Reductions in efficiency of food utilisation (20-40%) Impaired digestibility of food Impaired absorption of nutrients Consequences Longer to reach marketable weight Poorer carcass quality Lower milk and wool or fibre production 2
Parasitic gastroenteritis in sheep and goats: aspects of control - page 3
Effect of larval challenge and anthelmintic treatment Lambs exposed to high challenge may still under-perform even when treated frequently Daily gain gms 200 150 100 50 0 10 00 30 00 50 00 50 00 +A nt 0 -7% -25% -47% -33% Group given 4 treatments at 3 weekly intervals 3
Parasitic gastroenteritis in sheep and goats: aspects of control - page 4
Differences in the host-parasite host-parasite relationship between sheep and goats that influence control strategies Generalised model of the phases of resistance in sheep and goats FEC Sheep Goats Time 4
Parasitic gastroenteritis in sheep and goats: aspects of control - page 5
Rate of acquisition of immunity Adult goats that are obliged to graze are susceptible to nematode infection as they are less able to raise an effective immune response against these worms than sheep Consequences: 1. Goats grazed on pasture show higher FECs and generally carry higher worm burdens than sheep. 2. Frequent anthelmintic treatment is therefore necessary to achieve effective control of nematode infections in grazing goats Rate of metabolism and elimination of anthelmintics The rate of metabolism of anthelmintics is more rapid and rumen by-pass occurs more often in goats than in sheep Consequences: 1. Partial inefficiency of anthelmintics occurs in goats when they are administered at the recommended dose rate for sheep 2. Goats are therefore frequently underdosed 5
Parasitic gastroenteritis in sheep and goats: aspects of control - page 6
Approaches to control Managemental Grazing management Biological control Chemical Anthelmintics Bioactive forages Immunological Genetic selection Optimised nutrition Vaccines Approaches to control Managemental Grazing management Biological control Chemical Anthelmintics Bioactive Forages Immunological Genetic selection Optimised nutrition Vaccines 6
Parasitic gastroenteritis in sheep and goats: aspects of control - page 7
Grazing strategies for control of PGE in small ruminants Farms with mainly permanent pasture Alternation of sheep/goats with cattle Nematodirus battus can infect young calves Ostertagia ostertagi can infect kids and adult goats Alternation of goats with horses Trichostrongylus axei can transfer between hosts Do not alternate sheep and goats or graze them together intensively on the same pasture. Grazing strategies for control of PGE in small ruminants Farms with alternative grazing Rotation of crops and grass is often a feature. New leys and/or hay and silage aftermaths are available as safe pasture 3 year (clean grazing) rotation Area 1 Area 2 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Cattle Sheep Crops Sheep Crops Cattle Area 3 Crops Cattle Sheep 7
Parasitic gastroenteritis in sheep and goats: aspects of control - page 8
Approaches to control Managemental Grazing management Biological control Chemical Anthelmintics Bioactive forages Immunological Genetic selection Optimised nutrition Vaccines Biological control Nematophagous fungi Predatory Duddingtonia flagrans, Fungal spores fed to sheep develop in the faeces where their hyphae trap, kill and digest nematode larvae. Trapping efficacy can be up to 90%, but depends on temperature, dietary/seasonal effects faecal consistency and larval density. In temperate climates:- Efficiency at low temperatures and low larval densities is variable How to deliver the spores to grazing animals? Feed blocks, Sustained-release bolus 8
Parasitic gastroenteritis in sheep and goats: aspects of control - page 9
Approaches to control Managemental Grazing management Biological control Chemical Anthelmintics Bioactive forages Immunological Genetic selection Optimised nutrition Vaccines Anthelmintics for sheep & goats There are 55 products licensed for use in sheep There are no products currently licensed for use in goats 9
Parasitic gastroenteritis in sheep and goats: aspects of control - page 10
Recommended dose rates of selected anthelmintics for sheep and goats Benzimidazoles Fenbendazole Oxfendazole Mebendazole Albendazole Febantel Ovine dose(mg/Kg) Caprine dose(mg/Kg) 5 5 5 5 5 10 10 10 10 10 Recommended dose rates of selected anthelmintics for sheep and goats Imidazothiazoles Ovine dose(mg/Kg) Caprine dose(mg/Kg) Levamisole Morantel 7.5 6 12 10 10
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