Ponds — Planning, Design, Construction

Ponds — Planning, Design, Construction free pdf ebook was written by Lovell on April 27, 1998 consist of 96 page(s). The pdf file is provided by www.in.nrcs.usda.gov and available on pdfpedia since December 13, 2011.

i ponds—planning, design, construction agriculture handbook 590 preface this handbook describes the requirements for building a pond. it is useful to the landowner ...

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Ponds — Planning, Design, Construction pdf




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Ponds — Planning, Design, Construction - page 1
United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service Agriculture Handbook Number 590 Ponds — Planning, Design, Construction
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Ponds — Planning, Design, Construction - page 2
Agriculture Handbook 590 Ponds—Planning, Design, Construction Preface This handbook describes the requirements for building a pond. It is useful to the landowner for general information and serves as a reference for the engineer, technician, and contractor. In fulfilling their obligation to protect the lives and property of citizens, most states and many other government entities have laws, rules, and regulations governing the installation of ponds. Those responsible for planning and designing ponds must comply with all such laws and regula- tions. The owner is responsible for obtaining permits, performing necessary maintenance, and having the required safety inspections made. i
Ponds — Planning, Design, Construction - page 3
Agriculture Handbook 590 Ponds—Planning, Design, Construction Acknowledgments The first version of this handbook was prepared under the guidance of Ronald W. Tuttle, national landscape architect for the USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), and Gene Highfill, national agricultural engineer (retired), NRCS, Washington, DC. This version of the handbook was prepared by Clifton Deal, soil mechanic engineer, NRCS Portland, Oregon; Jerry Edwards, hydraulic engineer (retired), NRCS, Columbia, Missouri; Neil Pellmann, agricultural engineer, NRCS, Columbia, Missouri; Ronald W. Tuttle; and under the guidance of Donald Woodward, national hydrologist, NRCS, Washington, DC. The appendixes material was originally prepared for Landscape Architec- ture Note 2—Landscape Design: Ponds by Gary Wells, landscape architect, NRCS, Lincoln, Nebraska. Mary R. Mattinson, editor; Lovell S. Glasscock, editor; John D. Massey, visual information specialist; and Wendy R. Pierce, illustrator; NRCS, Fort Worth, Texas, provided valuable assistance in preparing the document for publishing. ii
Ponds — Planning, Design, Construction - page 4
Agriculture Handbook 590 Agriculture Handbook 590 Ponds—Planning, Design, Construction Ponds — Planning, Design, Construction Contents Introduction 1 Water needs 2 Livestock ............................................................................................................ 2 Irrigation ............................................................................................................ 3 Fish production ................................................................................................. 3 Field and orchard spraying .............................................................................. 4 Fire protection .................................................................................................. 4 Recreation .......................................................................................................... 6 Waterfowl and other wildlife ........................................................................... 6 Landscape quality ............................................................................................. 6 Multiple purposes ............................................................................................. 8 Preliminary investigations 9 General considerations .................................................................................... 9 Area adequacy of the drainage ........................................................................ 9 Minimum pond depth ..................................................................................... 10 Drainage area protection ............................................................................... 11 Pond capacity .................................................................................................. 12 Landscape evaluation ..................................................................................... 12 Estimating storm runoff 13 Hydrologic groupings of soils ........................................................................ 13 Runoff curve numbers .................................................................................... 13 Volume of storm runoff .................................................................................. 18 Rainfall amounts and expected frequency .................................................. 19 Rainfall distribution ........................................................................................ 19 Peak discharge rate ........................................................................................ 20 Time of concentration .................................................................................... 20 Average watershed slope ............................................................................... 21 Flow length ...................................................................................................... 21 I a /P ratio .......................................................................................................... 21 Estimating peak discharge rates ................................................................... 22 Site surveys 24 iii
Ponds — Planning, Design, Construction - page 5
Agriculture Handbook 590 Ponds—Planning, Design, Construction Embankment ponds 24 Detailed soils investigation ............................................................................ 24 Spillway requirements .................................................................................... 26 Pipes through the dam ................................................................................... 36 Planning an earthfill dam ............................................................................... 45 Staking for construction ................................................................................ 53 Building the pond ............................................................................................ 53 Excavated ponds 57 Soils .................................................................................................................. 57 Spillway and inlet requirements .................................................................... 58 Planning the pond ........................................................................................... 58 Building the pond ............................................................................................ 61 Sealing the pond 62 Compaction ..................................................................................................... 62 Clay blankets ................................................................................................... 63 Bentonite .......................................................................................................... 63 Chemical additives .......................................................................................... 64 Waterproof linings .......................................................................................... 65 Establishing vegetation 66 Protecting the pond ........................................................................................ 66 Wave action ..................................................................................................... 66 Livestock .......................................................................................................... 67 Operating and maintaining the pond 68 Pond safety 69 Before construction ........................................................................................ 69 During construction ........................................................................................ 69 After completion ............................................................................................. 69 References Glossary 70 71 Appendixes 75 Appendix A: Estimating the Volume of an Excavated Pond ..................... 75 Appendix B: Flood-Tolerant Native Trees and Shrubs .............................. 79 iv
Ponds — Planning, Design, Construction - page 6
Agriculture Handbook 590 Ponds—Planning, Design, Construction Tables Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4 Table 5 Table 6 Table 7 Table 8 Table 9 Table 10 Runoff curve numbers for urban areas Runoff curve numbers for agricultural lands Runoff curve numbers for other agricultural lands Runoff curve numbers for arid and semiarid rangelands Runoff depth, in inches I a values for runoff curve numbers Minimum spillway design storm Permissible velocity for vegetated spillways Guide to selection of vegetal retardance H p discharge and velocities for natural vegetated spillways with 3:1 end slope (Z 1 ) 14 15 16 17 18 21 27 28 28 30 Table 11 Depth of flow (H p ) and slope range at retardance values for various discharges, velocities, and crest lengths 34 Table 12 Table 13 Table 14 Discharge values for smooth pipe drop inlets Discharge values for corrugated metal pipe drop inlets Minimum head, h (ft), required above the invert of hood inlets to provide full flow, Q (ft 3 /s), for various sizes of smooth pipe and values of total head, H 38 38 41 Table 15 Minimum head, h (ft), required above the invert of hood inlets to provide full flow, Q (ft 3 /s), for various sizes of corrugated pipe and values of total head, H 42 Table 16 Table 17 Recommended side slopes for earth dams End areas in square feet of embankment sections for different side slopes and top widths 46 48 Table 18 Volume of material needed for the earthfill 51 v
Ponds — Planning, Design, Construction - page 7
Agriculture Handbook 590 Ponds—Planning, Design, Construction Figures Figure 1 Figure 2 Typical embankment and reservoir This pond supplies water to a stockwater trough used by cattle in nearby grazing area 1 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Water is pumped out of this pond for irrigation A pond stocked with fish can provide recreation as well as profit 3 4 Figure 5 A dry hydrant is needed when a pond is close enough to a home or barn to furnish water for fire fighting 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Details of a dry hydrant installation Ponds are often used for private as well as public recreation 5 6 Figure 8 Waterfowl use ponds as breeding, feeding, watering places, and as resting places during migration 7 Figure 9 The shoreline of a well-designed pond is protected from erosion by the addition of stone. Such a pond, reflecting nearby trees, increases the value of the surrounding land 7 Figure 10 This pond, which served as a sediment basin while homes in the background were being constructed, now adds variety and value to the community 8 Figure 11 A guide for estimating the approximate size of a drainage area (in acres) required for each acre-foot of storage in an embankment or excavated pond 10 Figure 12 Recommended minimum depth of water for ponds in the United States 11 Figure 13 Land with permanent vegetation makes the most desirable drainage area 12 Figure 14 A preliminary study of two alternative sites for a pond to be used for livestock water, irrigation, and recreation 12 Figure 15 Approximate geographic boundaries for NRCS rainfall distributions 19 vi
Ponds — Planning, Design, Construction - page 8
Agriculture Handbook 590 Ponds—Planning, Design, Construction Figure 16 Figure 17a Figure 17b Figure 17c Figure 17d Figure 18 Time of concentration (T c ) nomograph Unit peak discharge (q u ) for Type I storm distribution Unit peak discharge (q u ) for Type IA storm distribution Unit peak discharge (q u ) for Type II storm distribution Unit peak discharge (q u ) for Type III storm distribution Borrow material taken from within the reservoir area creates an irregular pond configuration 20 23 23 23 23 25 Figure 19 The apparent size of the pond is influenced by surrounding vegetation 26 Figure 20 Plan, profile, and cross section of a natural spillway with vegetation 29 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Excavated earth spillway Drop-inlet pipe spillway with antiseep collar Drop-inlet pipe spillways Dam with hooded inlet pipe spillway Pipe inlet spillways that have trash rack and antivortex baffle 33 36 37 39 40 Figure 26 Water is piped through the dam’s drainpipe to a stockwater trough 44 Figure 27 Figure 28 A core trench is cut on the centerline of a dam Dam side slopes are curved and shaped to blend with surounding topography 45 46 Figure 29 Figure 30 Figure 31 Finished grading techniques A tree well preserves vegetation Irregular clearing around the pond helps create a natural appearing edge 47 53 54 Figure 32 Feathering vegetation at the pond's edge makes a natural transition with existing vegetation 54 vii
Ponds — Planning, Design, Construction - page 9
Agriculture Handbook 590 Ponds—Planning, Design, Construction Figure 33 The sod and topsoil in a pond construction area can be stockpiled for later use 56 Figure 34 Geometric excavation graded to create more natural configuration 58 Figure 35 Figure 36 Figure 37 Typical sections of an excavated pond Correct disposal of waste material Waste material and plantings separate the pond from a major highway 59 60 61 Figure 38 Disking in chemical additive to seal a pond 62 viii
Ponds — Planning, Design, Construction - page 10
Agriculture Handbook 590 Ponds—Planning, Design, Construction ix
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