Yoruba Art & Culture

Yoruba Art & Culture free pdf ebook was written by 011384263 on October 05, 2005 consist of 35 page(s). The pdf file is provided by hearstmuseum.berkeley.edu and available on pdfpedia since December 09, 2011.

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Yoruba Art & Culture pdf




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Yoruba Art & Culture - page 1
Yoruba Art & Culture Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology U n i ve r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , B e r ke l ey
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Yoruba Art & Culture - page 2
Yoruba Art and Culture PHOEBE A. HEARST MUSEUM OF ANTHROPOLOGY Written and Designed by Nicole Mullen Editors Liberty Marie Winn Ira Jacknis Special thanks to Tokunbo Adeniji Aare, Oduduwa Heritage Organization. COPYRIGHT © 2004 PHOEBE A. HEARST MUSEUM OF ANTHROPOLOGY AND THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. P H O E B E A . H E A R S T M U S E U M O F A N T H R O P O L O G Y U N I V E R S I T Y O F C A L I F O R N I A AT B E R K E L E Y B E R K E L E Y, C A 9 4 7 2 0 - 3 7 1 2 5 1 0 - 6 4 2 - 3 6 8 2 H T T P : / / H E A R S T M U S E U M . B E R K E L E Y. E D U
Yoruba Art & Culture - page 3
Table of Contents Vocabulary....................4 Western Spellings and Pronunciation of Yoruba Words....................5 Africa....................6 Nigeria....................7 Political Structure and Economy....................8 The Yoruba....................9, 10 Yoruba Kingdoms....................11 The Story of How the Yoruba Kingdoms Were Created....................12 The Colonization and Independence of Nigeria....................13 Food, Agriculture and Trade....................14 Sculpture....................15 Pottery....................16 Leather and Beadwork....................17 Blacksmiths and Calabash Carvers....................18 Woodcarving....................19 Textiles....................20 Religious Beliefs....................21, 23 Creation Myth....................22 Ifa Divination....................24, 25 Music and Dance....................26 Gelede Festivals and Egugun Ceremonies....................27 Yoruba Diaspora....................28 Activities....................29 Critical Thinking Questions....................30 Review Questions....................31, 32 Lists of Objects....................33, 34 Sources Consulted....................35
Yoruba Art & Culture - page 4
YORUBA ART AND CULTURE ABSTRACT not a realistic or exact copy of something ADZE a tool used to cut and shape wood BABALAWO a diviner in Yoruba society CASSAVA a starchy root similar to a sweet potato COMPOUND a building or buildings where people live set off and enclosed by a barrier DEITY divine character or being of a supreme nature, a god or goddess DIASPORA a scattering of a people from their original homeland ECONOMY the management of the resources of a country EXPORT to ship goods to other countries or places for sale, exchange GOODS materials made to be sold IMPORT to bring or carry in from an outside source, especially to bring in (goods or materials) from a foreign country for trade or sale INDIGO a blue dye obtained from various plants KOLA NUTS brownish seed, about the size of a walnut containing caffeine MILLET a grain used as food for humans and fowls ORISA a god or deity PALM OIL an oil obtained especially from the crushed nuts of an African palm (Elaeis guineensis) used to make soaps, chocolates, cosmetics, and candles PETROLEUM crude oil found in the ground which is refined and used to power things like cars and gas stoves PLANTAIN a starchy form of the banana REALM a region, sphere, or domain SHRINE any structure or place devoted to a saint, holy person, or deity, as an altar, chapel, church, or temple SORGHUM an edible cereal grass STAPLE a basic or necessary item of food TARO a stemless plant, farmed in tropical regions, for the edible tuber URBAN characteristic of the city or city life YAM a starchy root or sweet potato PHOEBE A. HEARST MUSEUM OF ANTHROPOLOGY 4
Yoruba Art & Culture - page 5
YORUBA ART AND CULTURE Western Spellings and Pronunciation Key of Yoruba Words Esu: Eshu Ilesa: Ilesha Olorun: Olrun Orisanla: Orishala Orisa: Orisha Sango: Shango PHOEBE A. HEARST MUSEUM OF ANTHROPOLOGY 5
Yoruba Art & Culture - page 6
YORUBA ART AND CULTURE AFRICA Africa is the second largest continent in the world after Asia. It is an extremely diverse place with many different cultural groups and landscapes. There are tropical forests, grasslands, plains, and deserts. There are 54 countries in Africa, over 800 million people, and over 1,000 different languages spoken. PHOEBE A. HEARST MUSEUM OF ANTHROPOLOGY 6
Yoruba Art & Culture - page 7
YORUBA ART AND CULTURE NIGERIA People Nigeria's population is multi-ethnic with more than 250 groups having a variety of customs, religions, traditions, and languages. The country’s major ethnic groups, which make up about two- thirds of the total population, include the Hausa and Fulani in the north, the Yoruba in western Nigeria, and the Igbo in eastern Nigeria. Other groups include the Kanuri, Nupe, and Tiv of the north, the Edo of the south, and the Ibibio-Efik and Ijaw of the southeast. Although English is the official language of the country, Hausa, Igbo, and Yoruba are commonly spoken. About half of the population living in the north are Muslim; another 40 percent, in the south, are Christian. The remaining population follows traditional beliefs. Land Abuja has been the capital city of Nigeria since 1991. Nigeria is more than twice the size of California. The Republic of Niger borders it to the north, the country of Cameroon to the east, the Republic of Benin to the west, and the Atlantic Ocean to the south. The Niger River runs through the country. Nigeria has a coastline made up of sandy beaches, behind which lies a belt of mangrove swamps and lagoons. North of the coastal lowlands is a broad hilly region, with rain forest in the south, and savanna in the north. Behind the hills is the great plateau of Nigeria, a region of plains covered largely with savanna. This area becomes scrubland in the north. Lagos, Nigeria, 1960 PHOEBE A. HEARST MUSEUM OF ANTHROPOLOGY 7
Yoruba Art & Culture - page 8
YORUBA ART AND CULTURE Political Structure and Economy Although Nigeria's natural resources include vast amounts of oil and gas reserves, the country suf- fers from poverty. Nigeria has endured warfare and civil unrest since it became an independent nation. Years of military regimes and political corruption have left the country with economic problems. Nigeria has one of the largest populations of all the African countries with an estimated 104 million people. About 60 percent of the popula- tions live in rural areas. However, the capital cities are crowded as a result of people leaving the countryside in search of social and economic well-being. Although agriculture is an important part of Nigeria's economy it is difficult for the country to produce enough food to keep up with the rapid population growth. Although Nigeria still exports goods it must also import some of the country’s food in order to feed all of its people. In 1999 democratic elections were held and Olusegun Obasanjo was elected. There is hope that his leadership will turn Nigeria's economy around. Even so, Nigeria still has many challenges to overcome before it can obtain a strong economy. PHOEBE A. HEARST MUSEUM OF ANTHROPOLOGY 8
Yoruba Art & Culture - page 9
YORUBA ART AND CULTURE THE YORUBA The Yoruba people live on the west coast of Africa in Nigeria and can also be found in the eastern Republic of Benin and Togo. Because the majority of the slaves brought to the Americas were from West Africa Yoruban descendants can also be found in Brazil, Cuba, the Caribbean, and the United States. There are also many Yoruba currently living in Europe, particularly Britain, since Nigeria was once a British colony. The Yoruba are one of the largest cultural groups in Africa. Currently, there are about 40 million Yoruba world-wide. The Yoruba have been living in advanced urban kingdoms for more than 1,500 years. They created a strong economy through farming, trading, and art production. Their outstanding and unique artistic traditions include woodcarving, sculpture, metal work, textiles, and beadwork. Beaded Ibeji (twins) The Yoruba have one of the highest rates of twin births in the world. Twins (ibeji) are considered special children whose birth signifies good fortune. The loss of a twin is considered a great misfortune. If a twin dies, the mother has a memorial figure made and the soul of the deceased twin is transferred to it. The figure is then kept in the home and the mother continues to take care of it. She offers it food and prayers weekly and performs more elaborate rituals on the twin’s birthday. Beaded bag (detail) PHOEBE A. HEARST MUSEUM OF ANTHROPOLOGY 9 PHOTOGRAPHS BY NICOLE MULLEN
Yoruba Art & Culture - page 10
YORUBA ART AND CULTURE West Africans, such as the Yoruba, have lived in urban societies and have produced extraordinary art work since the 5 th century BC . During this time, the Yoruba began to use iron to create metal tools and weapons such as machetes, axes, and hoes. These tools made it easier for the Yoruba to farm the land. They planted crops including yams, their staple food. They also harvested the seeds from the palm oil tree. The seeds from this tree produce a vegetable oil that is used for cooking. Kola nuts were also grown and harvested. Soon the Yoruba began trading with neighboring areas for rice and sorghum. Due to increased agriculture, the Yoruba commu- nity began to grow in size and large towns were created. They arranged their communities by clan lines, or extended families. Families who had the same ancestors lived next door to each other in large compounds. An elder was put in charge as the head of the compound. Towns became organized by the type of work that people did. For example, farmers lived close by blacksmiths who made the tools they needed to farm their land. By 600 AD the Yoruba were ruled by kings and chiefs. Forestland, Nigeria Royal palace compound, Oyo, Nigeria, 1960 PHOEBE A. HEARST MUSEUM OF ANTHROPOLOGY 10
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