Maternal and Child Health

Maternal and Child Health free pdf ebook was written by on September 17, 2009 consist of 48 page(s). The pdf file is provided by and available on pdfpedia since December 03, 2011.

3 left: doctor goat thameesha has always suffered from wheezing and breathing difficulties. since he started drinking goat milk, he is stronger and his lungs less ...

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Maternal and Child Health pdf

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: December 03, 2011
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Total Page(s)
: 48
Maternal and Child Health - page 1
World Vision’s Little Book of Maternal and Child Health THER & O HILD HE C in the Asia Pacific TH AL M Statistics and strategies to help bring Millennium Development Goals Four and Five within reach
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Maternal and Child Health - page 2
© World Vision Asia-Pacific 2009 Stories researched and contributed by World Vision communicators, 2008/2009 Editing and design: Katie Chalk Review: Laurence Gray, Dr Sri Chander To find out more about World Vision’s work with maternal and child health in Asia and the Pacific: [email protected] 2
Maternal and Child Health - page 3
Contents: Left: Doctor Goat Why health, why now? Who is this book for? Maternal and child health terms and definitions Part 1: Statistics Part 2: Strategies Part 3: Recommendations References and reading 4 6 8 10 18 40 44 Thameesha has always suffered from wheezing and breathing difficulties. Since he started drinking goat milk, he is stronger and his lungs less prone to asthma or infections. “A villager told me that goat milk is good medicine,” says Thameesha’s father. “So with World Vision’s help I went out and got a male and four female goats.” While the “medicinal” properties of goat milk are unconfirmed, its nutritional value for children is very high. Thameesha’s father says since the goat’s milk was introduced to his children’s diets, their wheezing has all but disappeared. Photo: Hasanthi Jayamaha/World Vision Lanka 3
Maternal and Child Health - page 4
Why health, why now? An introduction by Watt Santatiwat, Vice President,World Vision Asia Pacific region Maternal and child health and nutrition interventions are complex issues for the Asia Pacific region. As statistical indicators they measure the health of a nation and the level of its development. But behind those statistics are the shadows of many other urgent development issues - gender inequality, massive wealth discrepancies, inadequate education or public health spending, and the tragedy of avoidable deaths through under-prioritisation of women, children and the poor. The Asia Pacific region has made some progress in changing the health of mothers and children for the better. But we still seriously lag behind in our efforts. The region still makes up 43% of the world’s total maternal deaths, and well over 40% of our children are malnourished. In our region, 18 of the 29 developing countries are currently off-track to achieve Goal 4 – to reduce child deaths by two-thirds, and 23 are off-track to achieve Goal 5 – to reduce maternal deaths by three-quarters. In 2010, World Vision will commence advocacy efforts across the region to encourage solutions at national level on maternal and child health. Each country faces a different set of challenges, and no country can rest just yet. My home country of Thailand, for instance, has shown what can be possible with appropriate investment of government funds in its people.Yet even here, in a country that is often held up as a development model for others, there is room for improvement. We still see unacceptable levels of preventable illness and deaths in marginalised communities, and malnutrition still exists in our children in both rural and urban areas. Fighting malnutrition needs to be a priority in all Asia Pacific countries, not just for children at different stages of their growth, but also for mothers. Over 30% of women are malnourished in this region, harming expectant mothers and reducing the chances of survival for their children before they are even born. Spending on health and nutrition needs to be increased and improved. The Asia Pacific region spends well below the world average of 5.1% of GDP. In South Asia only 1.9% is currently spent on health – and one in every five children that dies worldwide is an Indian child. 4
Maternal and Child Health - page 5
The ADB estimates that additional government investment of only around $3 per person per year, spent carefully to target specific healthcare gaps, could bring the MDGs within reach. Private sector contribution to health coverage is a vital component of strategies for meeting MDGs Four and Five. However, this should not detract from or replace government responsibility for public health care. This region is calling out for private and public collaboration on research, improvement and promotion of healthier living, in tandem with facilities and resources to improve the health of mothers and children in the Asia Pacific’s most vulnerable communities. I urge governments and donors in the Asia Pacific to recognise the way forward on sustainable, equitable health solutions to protect mothers and their children. It is at once a humanitarian duty and an investment in the future resilience of every nation in the region. Watt Santatiwat August 2009 5
Maternal and Child Health - page 6
Who is this book for? This book is for anyone with an interest in maternal and child health, but in particular for people who can play a role in strengthening it. The Asia Pacific has some of the biggest health challenges of any region. Here, health is a complex issue, at the heart of community development and wellbeing and yet held back by resources, attitudes and traditions. These aspects come together as barriers to deny fair access to health for more than half the people living in the Asia Pacific. As an international NGO with a strong grassroots approach, World Vision is ideally placed both to deliver health strategies in under-resourced communities, and to recognise gaps that cannot be filled without the support and mobilisation of others. This book explores some of these gaps, as well as potential solutions to fill them, by sharing stories from World Vision’s field experiences. A single story may not constitute “evidence” but it can bring unique insight into challenges, and how current health practices are missing the mark when it comes to pro-poor, child-focused protection of lives. Born in a remote village in the district of Xieng Nguen, Baby Anoi has had his weight and height measured since birth, and passes the test each time. Despite its relative poverty, Lao PDR is one of the Asian countries on track to achieve MDG Four. The Laos government has announced its commitment to opening community health centres, providing better delivery care, immunisations and micro-nutrient supplements for infants and mobilizing resources to improve mother and child health. World Vision currently partners with the government in rural areas to monitor child health through mobile clinics. Photo: Albert Yu/World Vision Lao PDR 6
Maternal and Child Health - page 7
MDG Four: Reduce child deaths (under five) by two thirds by 2015 On track: Bangladesh, China, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Solomon Isl.,Timor-Leste, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand,Vietnam Off track: Cambodia, India, Myanmar, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Vanuatu MDG Five: Reduce maternal deaths by three quarters by 2015 On track: China, Philippines, Solomon Isl., Sri Lanka, Thailand,Vietnam Off track: Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Nepal, Papua New Guinea, Timor-Leste Statistics and case studies in this book include only countries where World Vision is working in the Asia Pacific. The summary above is based on World Vision’s 2009 report “Strategies that Work”: 7
Maternal and Child Health - page 8
Maternal and child health terms and definitions Under five mortality rate The probability (expressed as a rate per 1,000 live births) of a child dying before reaching the age of five. Infant mortality rate The probability (expressed as a rate per 1,000 live births) of a child dying before reaching the age of one year. Maternal mortality ratio The probability (expressed as a rate per 100,000 pregnancies) of a woman dying during pregnancy, childbirth or the first 42 days after delivery. Low birth weight A birth weight of under 2,500 grams. Babies born with a low birth rate are twenty times more likely to die than babies born above the minimum weight of 2,500 grams. Stunting Measures height against age: usually caused by long-term insufficient nutrient intake or frequent infections. Stunting generally occurs before the age of two; effects are largely irreversible. Wasting Measures weight against height in all ages: usually an indicator of acute food shortage and/or disease. A high prevalence of wasting usually correlates with a high under-five mortality rate. Underweight Measures weight against age: the indicator used to determine malnutrition in children under five. Micro-nutrient deficiency Even in a diet where macro-nutrients (carbohydrate, protein and fat) are provided, a lack of micro- nutrients can lead to lasting and life-threatening malnutrition. Common deficiencies include iron, vitamin A and iodine. Vaccination Many childhood diseases including measles, polio, diptheria, tetanus and whooping cough are preventable through early vaccines. However the measure of vaccination in statistical terms usually refers to immunisation against measles by the age of one year. Improved water Access to uncontaminated, contained water sources. Improved sanitation Safe disposal of excrement whereby it is separated from the possibility of human contact (usually means a toilet). 8
Maternal and Child Health - page 9
World Vision is working in nearly 90 countries worldwide with health interventions to support the achievement of Millennium Goals Four and Five. Across Asia and the Pacific, World Vision’s child- focused programmes are partnering at house- hold, community and national level to: Improve standards and increase action around maternal and child health Empower girls and women with the knowledge to take good care of themselves and their children, including nutrition, vaccinations, first aid and family health responses, and birth spacing Encourage governments and international donors to find ways to provide affordable, equal access for all to healthcare, in particular services for mothers and children under five Nepal Papua New Guinea Philippines Solomon Islands Sri Lanka Thailand Timor-Leste Vanuatu Vietnam World Vision Asia Pacific region encompasses: Bangladesh Cambodia China DPRK (North Korea) India Indonesia Lao PDR Mongolia Myanmar 9
Maternal and Child Health - page 10
Part 1: Statistics Bangladesh % children underweight: Under 5 mortality (per 1000): Living with improved water: Living with improved sanitation: Maternal mortality (per 100,000): 41% 61 80% 36% 320 Bangladesh’s poverty, and the constant setbacks of natural disasters, challenge its ability to remain food-secure. In addition, gender inequality, including a lack of priority for girls’ education, means many mothers lack nutritional knowledge for themselves or their children. In Bangladesh today, 500,000 children are diagnosed with severe acute malnutrition. The maternal mortality ratio is also high, ranging from 320-380 per every 100,000 live births. As only around 7% of births are registered, this figure is an estimate and could easily be higher. All statistics in this section are taken from UNICEF’s State of the World’s Children 2009 unless otherwise noted. 10
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