Common Freshwater Fish Diseases, Their Symptoms and Control

Common Freshwater Fish Diseases, Their Symptoms and Control free pdf ebook was written by Raha on October 01, 2005 consist of 11 page(s). The pdf file is provided by assamagribusiness.nic.in and available on pdfpedia since May 09, 2012.

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Common Freshwater Fish Diseases, Their Symptoms and Control pdf




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Common Freshwater Fish Diseases, Their Symptoms and Control  - page 1
Common Freshwater Fish Diseases, Their Symptoms and Control Measures : Types A. Parasitic diseases 1. Whirling disease Symptoms Excessive secretion of mucus and weakness, rapid tail chasing & in advanced stages head, gill, etc. may be deformed. Control measures Application of Calcium Cyanamide (NCNCa) jaw, at the rate of 0.2 kg/ m 2 at the infected pond bottom and side after dewatering is required. If draining is possible, after draining the pond water remove the pond bottom mud then lime at the rate of 200- 250 kg/ha area can be applied to the drained pond bottom and the allowed to dry for 2 weeks to eradicate the parasites completely. After eradication of the parasite restocking is in the pond is done. Prevention is by controlling the intermediate host the leech etc into the pond. Leech can be controlled by dipping fishes into common salt (NaCl) or copper sulphate (CuSO 4 ) solution. To avoid the incidence of costiasis proper feeding & maintenance of water quality is required. Therapeutic bath with formaline 0.2-0.3 ml/lit and combination of 0.1 mg/lit of malachite green with 15 mg/ lit. formaline is found effective. Pond treatment with malachite green at a concentration of 0.1mg/ lit. or with formalin at a concentration of 15 mg/lit for once or twice or thrice on need basis. Maintenance of water P H above 6.5 and dissolved oxygen level at 5 ppm or above automatically save the fish stock from infection. Short bath in formalin at a concentration of 200-300 ml/ m 3 for half an hour. (or) Apply common salt (NaCl) at a concentration of 0.15- 0.20% for 1- 2 days to the infected pond. (or) Apply lime to the infected fish pond at the rate of 200- 300 kg/ ha with repetition at an interval of 7 days. Give short bath with potassium permanganate (KMnO 4 )for 10- 2. Trypanosomasis (Piscine sleeping sickness) Infected fish suffers from slack, sickness. Fishes are sluggish, anemic with pale gill & skin. Costia causes dullness of skin & gills. Infected fish become restless, secrete excessive mucus & shows comparatively big head. 3. Costiasis 4. Ich. Disease (White spot disease) White spot seen on the skin, gill, fins, and cornea of the infected fish. If the infection is heavy then fish become restless and gasping air at the water surface. Infected fish reacts by rubbing their body against pond bottom and side. Infected fish becomes restless, lethargic, loss body weight and body colour becomes dull with excessive mucus secretion. 5. Trichodiniasis 6. Chillodonella infection Infected fish becomes irritable, Jump clear of the
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Common Freshwater Fish Diseases, Their Symptoms and Control  - page 2
7. White scale spot disease water, slowly becomes week and unresponsive. Bluish green mucus occurs on the skin. Scale and body surface are covered with white cysts, effected fish become lethargic. Infected fish shows – erratic swimming, appearance of local lesions, pale gill colour, excessive mucus secretion, falling of scales, rubbing of body against any submerged objects, etc. The skin of fish becomes spotted dark and covered with bluish gray mucus layer. When it attacks on the fin the fin rays are left. In case of gill infection the fish swim listlessly below the water surface or they gather on the side, where they slowly suffocate, gills are spotted and filled with blood. Numerous small black nodules or cysts are found all over the body. The infected fish show sluggishness, slight distension of abdomen, surfacing, reluctant to accept feed etc. Infected fish shows lethargic movement, reluctant to accept feed, surfacing and gasping air, etc. Infected fish gill become pale. Infected fish shows yellowish white granules on lip, skin and fins. Adult worm are detected in the intestine or the body cavity of diseased fish. Blood spots over the body surface, loose scale, sunken eyes, pale gills, etc. (It also act as a vector). Mechanical damage to gill lamina, gill colour faded, can be seen through microscope under low magnification. 15 (KMnO 4 )for 10- 15 of 50 mg/lit. Apply lime at the rate of 250- 300kg/ ha. Along with liming give bath treatment with common salt(NaCl) at the concentration of 3- 5%. Apply lime at the rate of 250- 300 kg/ ha. Apart from liming give dip treatment in common salt (NaCl) solution at the concentration of 5%. Draining and drying the pond for about a week is an effective method of killing gyrodactylus. Formalin bath at the concentration of 200-300 mg/lit. of water for 30 minutes may also be given. 8. Dactylogyrosis 9. Gyrodactylus 10. Black spot disease (Digenea) 11. Strap worm disease (Lingulinosis) 12. Blood fluke Drain & dry the infected pond followed by application of lime at the rate of 250-300 kg/ ha can eradicate the parasite. Removing the infected fish as far as practicable is one way to control. Trichlorophon at the rate of 0.10-0.15 mg/ lit. of water can also be applied to the infected pond. Remove the severely infected fish. Give the dip treatment with trichlorophon at a concentration of 1% for 2-3 minutes. Drain & dry the infected pond followed by application of lime at the rate of 250-300 kg/ ha can eradicate the parasite. Apply lime at the rate of 250- 300 kg/ ha. (1) Give dip treatment with trichlorophron in a concentration of 5 mg/lit. of water for 10- 15 minutes; (2) If the infection is heavy - 13. Namatods & Acanthocephalosis 14. Leech infection 15. Ergasilosis (Gill lice)
Common Freshwater Fish Diseases, Their Symptoms and Control  - page 3
16. Lernaeosis (Commonly known as “Anchor worm disease”) Hook like attachment on the nostril/ head regions, fish become restless and rub against any hard substrate found in the pond due to irritation. 17. Argulosis (Carp lice) Infected fish shows- erratic swimming behaviour & reluctant to accept feed. Parasite is visible with naked eye and ulceration is seen at the attachment site. 18. Isopod infection Infected fish shows- lethargic movement & reluctant to accept feed, etc. remove the whole fish stock from the pond then dewater and dry the pond, after that remove a layer of soil of 20cm thickness from the pond bottom and then apply lime at the rate of 200- 250 kg/ ha, then refilled the pond with water and introduce a new stock of fish for culture. (1) Apply potash(KMnO 4 ) to the infected fish pond at the rate of 4 mg/lit. of water. (or) (2) Give short bath treatment to the infected fish in common salt (NaCl) solution at a concentration of 2.5-3% for 5 – 10 minutes. Treated fish should be released to the pond immediately after the treatment. (1) Apply potash(KMnO 4 ) to the infected fish pond at the rate of 4 mg/lit. of water. (or) (2) Give short bath treatment to the infected fish in common salt (NaCl) solution at a concentration of 2.5-3% for 5 – 10 minutes. Treated fish should be released to the pond immediately after the treatment. (or) (3) Apply cleaner solution to the infected fish pond at the rate of 50- 100ml/ bigha water spread area. If draining is possible then lime at the rate of 200- 250 kg/ ha area can be applied to the drained pond bottom and the allowed to dry for 2 weeks to eradicate the parasites completely. After eradication of the parasite restocking is in the pond is done. Same with argulosis. B. Bacterial diseases 19. Furanculosis On the skin local erosion surrounded by inflammated reddish zone which gradually turns into a large deep ulcer. In acute cases protruding eyes and accumulation body fluids in the body cavity is seen. Accumulation of body fluid/ water in the body cavity or in Fed the infected fish with tetracycline with feed at the rate of 0.07 gm/ kg body weight of fish daily till the cure. Maintenance of hygienic environment helps in keeping the fish free from this disease. Apply KMnO 4 (Potash) at the rate of 4- 5 mg/ Lit. of water to 20. Dropsy
Common Freshwater Fish Diseases, Their Symptoms and Control  - page 4
scale pockets, scales become loose, abdomen bulge largely and pressing on it water comes out through the mouth etc. the infected fish pond. 21. Columnaris 22. Tail and fin rot 23. Bacterial gill disease 24. Vibrio disease (Red boil disease) 25. Mycobacterial Disease 26. Hemophilosis 27. Ulcer disease 28. Re pest of freshwater eels Lesions occur in the skin of Give dip treatment to the the head region and back infected fish with copper as well as gills. sulphate (CuSO 4 ) for 1-2 minutes at a concentration of 2 mg/ lit. This may be followed by feeding tetracycline to the infected fish along with feed at a concentration of 10-15 mg/ kg body weight of fish. Erosion and disintegration Same with columnaris disease. of fin and tails. As the lesion develops the outer fin margin becomes frayed and disintegration of soft tissues between fin rays starts. in Potassium Infected fish shows pale Bath swelling gill with excessive permanganate (KMnO 4 ) at a secretion of mucus. conc. of 1-2 mg/lit. for 7 days. Sluggish movement, sign of asphyxiation and surfacing are other symptoms. Affected fish become Fed the infected fish with swollen, dark in colour with Sulphamerazin 0.2 gm/kg body skin lesions. weight mixed with feed for 3 consecutive days and after an interval of 2 days repetition of same dose. (or) Fed the infected fish with Furazolidone 50-70 mg/ kg body weight mixed with feed for 10 consecutive days. Mostly seen in aquarium Fed the infected fish with fish. Infected fish shows Kanamycin sulphate at the rate loss of appetite, loss of of 10 mg/ kg body weight for 4- colour scales, destruction of 7 days. fins, etc. Lesion is found in the Fed the infected fish with infected fish on the fin Oxytetracycline at the rate of between the fin rays and 25- 75 mg/ body weight/ day for edges of jaw or roof of the 35-45 days. mouth. Infected fish shows small Apply KMnO 4 (Potash) at the pimple like reddish areas on rate of 5 mg/ lit. of water in the body surface and letter pond water. Along with potash develop into ulcers. treatment the sulphadiazine can be fed to the infected fish along with feed at the rate of 100 mg/ kg of feed for 100 mg/ kg of feed for 10- 12 days. Infected fish body shows It is difficult treat, effected fish red blotches, later on the should be remove immediately lesions of the skin become and buried them. This is whitish blotches and form followed by disinfections of the effected pond after draining and ulcer.
Common Freshwater Fish Diseases, Their Symptoms and Control  - page 5
29. Re pest of freshwater fish 30. Coldwater disease (Peduncle disease) 31. Bacterial kidney disease drying. Infected fish body shows Same with red pest of cutaneous blotches which freshwater eels. may be round, oval or elongated in shape, of whitish colouration and in some cases loss of epithelium and scales. Affected fish shows typical Fed the infected fish with lesion start as a small sulphamethazine at the rate of whitish or bluish spot behind 100 mg/kg feed/day along with the dorsal fin. From this, feed for 10 – 20 days. erosion occurs until a crater is present in the muscle. Externally it is difficult to It is difficult to control But detect, but in some cases erothromycin may be fed to the there will be ill defined fish at the rate of 100 mg/ kg lesions on side of the body. feed for 15- 20 days. Effected fish kidney shows grayish- white necrotic zones filled with purulent material. C. Viral diseases 32. Infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN Virus) Affected fish are darker in colour, tail chasing, exophthalmia, abdomen and hemorrhages in ventral areas, etc. The infected fish is characterized by high mortality, fishes are dark in colour, lethargic and exhibits hemorrhages in fin sockets, etc. Clinical symptoms shows lethargy, weakness, dark colouration, anaemia, swelling of abdomen, pale gill, etc. Infected fish swim restlessly in dorsal and lateral position at the water surface, body colour becomes dark & abdomen distended. The infected fish swim slowly, gills become pale, haemorrhages on the trunk and above the anal fin, etc. Affected fish- loss equilibrium, swim erratically, shows haemorrhages of gills, skin and fin base, etc. Affected fish develop small pear- like tumefacious either singly or in groups in skin, fin, tail, intestinal wall, liver, No control effective control measures. As prophylaxis providing optimum feed and maintenance of hygienic environment. Isolation of healthy fish is the main prophylactic measure as there are no control measures. 33. Viral haemorrhagic Septicaemia (VHS) 34. Infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN) 35. Swimbladder Infection (SBI) There are no control measures. But by raising water o temperature above 15 c this can be controlled. Same with viral haemorrhagic septicemia (VHS). 36. Pike fry virus No control measures. Avoidance of virus is the only prophylaxis. No control measures, Avoidance of stress is the only prophylactic measure. As there is no whole effected destroyed. Then affected Pond cure, so the stock should disinfect the by draining 37. Channel catfish Virus (CCV) 38. Lymphocystis Disease
Common Freshwater Fish Diseases, Their Symptoms and Control  - page 6
39. Papillomatosis (Cauliflower disease) spleen, ovary, etc. Skin may followed by drying and applying develop sand papers. lime at the rate of 200- 300 kg/ha. After disinfections fish culture should start newly. The cauliflower like Bath in soluble quinine sulphate papillomonous may be at the rate of 60 mg/ lit. for white, light red or dark gray about 40- 50 days. that affect fin, body, tail etc. Lesion is also seen in the skin and jaws of affected fish. D. Fungal diseases 40. Saprolegniasis (Cotton wool disease) Infected fish shows whitish fungal mesh which looks like cotton wools appears in the infected parts of fish body. Sometimes lesions appear as gray white patches on various parts of the body like- skin, fins, eyes, mouth, and gill Common salt (NaCl) at Erosion of tail and body parts. Give bath treatment to the infected fish with KMnO 4 (Potash) at the conc. of 1 gm/ 100lit. of water for 1 hr. (or) Give bath treatment to the infected fish with the conc. of 10 gm/ lit. of water for 20-30 minutes. (or) Give bath treatment to the infected fish with Copper sulphate (CuSO 4 ) at the conc. of 5 gm/ 10 lit. of water for 15-20 minutes. Give long bath with malachite green at the rate of 0.15- 0.20 mg/ lit of water 15- 30 minutes. (or) Give bath treatment to the infected fish with methylene blue at the concentration of 10- 20 mg/lit. of water for 15 minutes. Draining the pond Bottom & disinfecting with quick lime (CaO) at the rate of 200-250 kg/ ha. should be done at the end of each culture practice. CuSO 4 at the rate of 8 kg/ ha may be used in 4 monthly installments of 2-3 kg/ ha each. Bath in CuSO 4 at the rate of 1 gm/10 lit. of water for 10-30 minutes. Disinfect the affected fish pond with lime as Mentioned in the branchiomycosis. Remove & destroy the infected fish stock & water can be purify by applying chlorine at the rate of 200 mg/ lit. of water. 41. Achlyasis 42. Branchiomycosis Affected fish congregate near the inlet of water & refuse to take feed. Infected fish gill becomes grayish white and finally drop off. 43. Ichthyophonus disease Infected organs shows roughness, often-necrotic lesions and hyper pigmentation. E. Environmental diseases 44. Changes in water depth (If the water depth becomes less than 1 m and more than 2 m) “Sun Loss of appetite, in growth and fish lethargic. Sudden may be occur reduction becomes mortality due to Maintain the water depth in the pond in an around 2 meters. If the water depth is less than 2 m Then fill up the required
Common Freshwater Fish Diseases, Their Symptoms and Control  - page 7
burn disease” 45. Changes temperature shock” increase of stress by pollutants. fish shows in water Affected “Thermal surfacing, loss of appetite, less growth and fish becomes lethargic. Effect of other factors of disease will increase and fish may die. 46. Changes in water P H Pond water become acidic or alkaline. Affected fish “Acidosis & alkalosis” shows- growth retardation, excessive mucus secretion, fraying of fins, etc. Fish will be susceptible to the infection of other diseases. fish shows- 47. Reduction in Affected dissolved oxygen (D.O.) surfacing. Died fish mouth concentration (Anoxia) remains open and gill colour become pale. quantity from the nearby source. Supply water from a nearby source. Cut the quantity of feed supply. Turbulent the water with the help of a split bamboo. Harvest the table size fish and reduce the density of fish in the pond. Apply lime according to P H of water. Apply lime at the rate of 270, 140, 70 and 25 kg/ ha for P H values ranges between 4.0- 5.0, 5.1-6.5,6.6-7.5 & 7.6-8.5 respectively. Apart from taking the control measures cited incase of changes in water temperature cut application of feed & fertilizer temporarily. Reduce the stocking density of fish by harvesting the table size fish. Repeated netting may be done. KMnO 4 (Potash) may apply at the rate of 1-2 mg/ lit. of water in the pond. Liming can be done at rate of 27 kg/ ha water spread area. 48. Increase in dissolved oxygen (D.O.) concentration (Gas Bubble Disease) 49. Increase in dissolved carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentration 50. Increase in hydrogen sulphide(H 2 S) concentration in water 51. Increase of turbidity of pond water Fish fry & fingerlings are mostly affected. Due to entry of gas bubble in the arteries of fish body fish may die. Normally it is seen in the noon and afternoon hours of a day. Affected fish secrete excessive mucus and suffers from asphyxiation. Effected fish pond mud will smell like rotten egg and bottom dwellers like- mirika, common carp, etc. will die first. Small fish and eggs are effected first. Growth of fish retarded, dissolved oxygen concentration is reduced and fish dies from asphyxiation. Supply water from the nearby source. If there is any mechanical aeration instruments then that should be stopped. Affected fish should transfer to a nearby pond. Take the corrective measures given in case of reduction in dissolved oxygen concentration Remove the died fish and take the corrective measures give in case of changes in water P H . Apply aluminium (filter alum) sulphate i.e. Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 14 H 2 O at the rate of 10-40 mg/ lit. of water . Actual quantity can be determined by putting alum in a glass of turbid water. After applying alum liming should be done as per the water P H as mentioned in corrective measure of water P H . 52. Red or green or brown coloured layer over the pond water surface (Algal toxicosis disease) Bad smell of effected fish pond water. The thickness of layer may increase from morning to noon hours. Surfacing of fish in the effected pond is seen from late night to dawn and fish may die. Supply of feed & fertilizer to the pond should be stopped temporarily. If possible remove the coloured layer with the help of free hand or by using a split bamboo. Copper sulphate (CuSO 4 ) at the rate of 0.1-0.5 mg/ lit. of water can also be
Common Freshwater Fish Diseases, Their Symptoms and Control  - page 8
53. Increase in concentration unionized ammonia the Affected fish gill become of reddish and effected fish may die also. 54. Tarumatic injuries 55. Acute anaphylaxis 56.Deterioration of water quality by pollutants Nowadays pollutants are also taking leading role in the disease of fishes. Sources of this pollutants are- Chemical waste, industrial waste, sewage, agricultural waste, oil pollution, etc. Effected fish shows biting sign of predators on body surface and other external organs like- fins. In acute cases some lesions may be seen on the body surface. Effected fish shows extreme rigor with all fins erect, body colour become very dark & body become very rigid and twitching. Affected fish shows- haemorrhagic eyes, pectoral fins may drop off, surfacing, loss of balance, sudden mass mortality, etc. apply. Control the water temperature, P H and also the concentration of phytoplankton in the pond and for that purpose take the renovative measures given in case of changes of water P H & temperature. Remove predators from the pond. Apply KMnO 4 (Potash) at the rate of 4-5 mg/lit of water to the effected pond. Effected fish should not be disturbed and they usually recover automatically before the next meal. Fish from the effected pond should be removed and buried under soil. Water of the effected pond should be drained out and pond bed should be dried. After that pond bottom mud up to 1 ft. depth (minimum) should be removed. Then pond should be disinfected with lime depending on P H as mentioned in the case of change in water P H . Afterwards the pond should be refilled with water and a new stock of fish can be cultured. F. Genetical diseases Genetical diseases of fishes are originated due to the - hereditary factors, shock received by fish in its early stage i.e. egg, spawn, fry, etc. This shock may be natural (like-oxygen deficiency, temperature variation, variations in light concentration, water flow variation, etc. in the spawning & cultured environment), or artificial (like- effect of chemicals and others in the spawning & cultured environment). There is no control measure of this disease. Removal of affected fishes from the stocking pond, not using the effected fish for the production of fish seed, introduction of healthy fish seed to the culture system from known sources, maintenance of congenial environment for the cultured stock, etc. are the only preventive measures. Some of the commonly found genetical fish diseases are- Types 57. Kyphosis 58. Vertebral column abnormality 59. Lordosis 60. Scoliosis 61. Caudal peduncle Symptoms Affected fish shows hum formation in between the head and dorsal fin. Affected fish shows marked dropping of back, shortening of vertebral column and fusion of vertebra. Concavity before the dorsal fin or at the dorsal fin. Bending of caudal fin Downward & upward bending of Control measures
Common Freshwater Fish Diseases, Their Symptoms and Control  - page 9
abnormality 62. Mouth abnormality 63. Pectoral fin abnormality 64. Atrophy of pelvic fin 65. Scale abnormality 66. Genetically or hereditary modifications of colour I) Xanthorism II) III) Albinism Melanism caudal peduncle, absence of caudal fin, etc. Downward displacement of the mouth, distortion of he mouth because of abnormalities in jaws etc. Large growth of pectoral fins. Absence of one or both the pelvic fins. Changes in scales number, size, shape, etc. Gold colouration of fish due to gene mutation e.g. gold fish Whitish colouration of fish body. Black colouration of fish Blue colouration of fish IV) Alampy 67.Genetical or hereditary modifications due to disturbances in the embryonic stages of fish I) Over ripening or immature eggs II) Oxygen deficiency III) Temperature variation IV) Variations in light V) Effect of flow rate of water, Chemicals, etc. 68. Deformity in organs conformation 69. Tumours Deformity in jaws, eyes, vertebral columns, etc. Distortion of the pectoral fins, shortening of flesh in adult fish, etc. Abnormality in fins. Lordosis & scoliosis may be caused. Number of dorsal and anal fin rays get reduced. Deformity in vertebral column, body colour, fins, scales, etc. Position of internal organs in other than its actual places e.g. liver on Effected fish shows tumours on the body surface, enlargement of abdomen, loss of appetite, softening of bones, etc Symptoms of nutritional deficiency- eye cataract, blindness, swelling of throat, liver degeneration, damage of kidney, poor wound healing, poor growth, loss of appetite, susceptibility to infection by other pathogens, etc. Severely infected fish should be remove from the culture system. Proper quality & quantity feed supply to the cultured fishes is the only prophylactic measure. G. Nutritional diseases Nutritional deficiency causes Scoliosis, blindness, goiter, seakoke, etc.
Common Freshwater Fish Diseases, Their Symptoms and Control  - page 10
H. Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome (Locally known as “Machar Gha Laga Bemar”). Species Infected: Indian Major Carps: Exotic Carps: Minor Carps: Murrels: Airbreathing fish: Eels: Weed fish: Clinical Signs: Bhakua/ Dhekera/ Bahu (Catla), Rohu and Mirika. Silver Carp, Grass Carp and Common Carp. Kurhi, Mali and Java Puthi. Goroi, Cheng, Sal and Sol. Magur, Singi, Ari, Tengra, etc. Kuchia. Puthi, Darikana, Moa, Khalihana, Botia, Tora, etc. Tiny red spot on the body surface initially. This spot later develop ulcer. After few days loosing its scales and muscles exposes body. Infected fish dies within a short period. Photo:EUS infected Common Carp treated at College of Fisheries, AAU, Raha. Prophylaxis: To prevent the infection of EUS in the cultured fish this is required. This helps in maintaining the health of cultured fish and also helps in getting a good production. The following prophylactive measures are needed for EUS: 1. Apply lime at the rate of 10- 15 kg/bigha of water spread area depending on P H of water before the onset of winter. This is followed by application of KMnO 4 (Potash) to the pond water at the rate of 4-5 ppm (4- 5 mg/lit. of water). (OR) 2. Apply lime as mentioned in the 1 st prophylactive measure. After 1- 2 days of application of lime to the pond water spraying of “Sukrena W.S.” over the pond water surface at the rate of 500ml/ bigha water spread area give encouraging result. Treatment measures: 1. Apply lime at the rate of 10- 15 kg/bigha of water spread area depending on P H of water. After 1- 2 days of application of lime to the pond water spraying of “Sukrena W.S.” over the pond water surface at the rate of 500ml/ bigha water spread area. Repeat the application of Sukrena W.S. to the infected pond for 2 nd or 3 rd times depending on the need basis at 10 –15 days interval. (OR)
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