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economic and social commission for asia and the pacific human resource development req uirements of..humanresourcedevelopment g. employmentopportunities h. upgradingstandards i. setting up standardsor food craft institutes f j. setting..suggest measures for improvement; and (6) suggest measuresto upgrade training courses...

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I ST/ESCAP/2020 I A study on human resourcedevelopment requirementsof the tourism sector in India was undertakenin response a requestof the to Governmentof India with financial assistance from the Governmentof Japan. The reportwasprepared Mr. M.K. Khanna,Consultant. by The views expressed in the report are those of the author and do and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expressionof any opinion whatsoeveron the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area, or of its authorities, or concerningthe delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. not nec~ssarily reflect those of the United nations. The designationsemployed This publicationhasbeenissuedwithoutformal editing.
CONTENTS Page Introduction Attributes of tourism in India The Indian tourism product Economicsignificance tourism of Growth forecasts D. Major constraintson growth of tourismin India Need for trained manpower F. Humanresourcedevelopment G. Employmentopportunities H. Upgradingstandards I. Setting up standards food craft institutes for J. Setting up standards otherinstitutes for K. Training programmeof the SouthAsia integratedtourism and humanresourcedevelopment programme II. C. B. A. Constraints Existing The Obtaining travel on facilities human resources tourism forresource sector human development resource development and solutions in 1 :.3A. 3B. 4c. 7 7E. 11 12 15 15 16 16 17 18 18 19 D. Initiatives travel tourism for human resource development in the travel 22 22 25 E. Guide tourism training sector III. Prognosisfor humanresource development the tourism sector in A. Hospitality sector B. Travel tourism sector 26 26 31 List of tables Page I. Estimatesfor direct employmentin tourism Labour-capital ratios by sector Growth of domestictourism Internationaltourist arrivals in India : 5. Projectedinternational arrivalsanddomestictourist visits, 2000-2010 Additional employment total employment tourism- and in related activities, 1996-2010 52. 63. 64. 7 126. 12
INTRODUCTION This study of human resource development in the tourism industry of India has six objectives: (1) ascertainthe manpowerneedsin the hotel and accommodation sector; (2) determine the existing shortfalls in particular occupationsand considerappropriate staffing patternnorms for the hotel and accommodation sector; (3) identify the need for trained manpower by number, quality and level; (4) estimatethe trained manpowerrequirementsin various operational skills; (5) ascertain the need of training infrastructure improvement, and suggest measures for improvement; and (6) suggest measuresto upgrade training courses to address higher skill requirements. The circumstances that necessitated this study were considered to be pressing. If India is to meet the target of over five million international tourist arrivals by the turn of the century; it is likely there should be proportionate averageannualincreasesin employment for the tourism sector. There is a substantial multiplier effect for every job created in the tourism sector, which can generateadditional employment at a tertiary level. An economic sector that generatesthe maximum foreign exchangeearnings and has the potential to account for more then 70 per cent of additional employment generation annually deservesanalysis and priority treatment. Investment requirementsto meet the infrastructure needs of the sector will also have to be substantiallyincreased. Finally, there is an increasingly evidenttrend for economic activitiesto shift from manufacturingto the service sectors,both internationally and inIndia. There are seven main subjects covered by such a study of humanresource development for tourism in India. First is discussionof the need tohave a sufficient number of well trained and motivated human resourcesforthe planned expansion of tourism and allied activities coveringaccommoda food, entertainment,transport, retail trade and travel trade. Secondis analysis to ascertainthe manpowerneedsaccordingto job patterns in the hotel and accommodation sector from a representative sample ofhotels.
Third is an assessment the existing gaps in particular occupations of to determine how to develop appropriate staffing patterns for different categories of hotels. Fourth, ascertain the need for trained manpower by number, quality and level based on forecasts prepared with respect to requirements for additional hotel rooms by 2000, 2005 and 2010. Fifth, trained manpower requirements in various operational skills associatedwith each activity need to be determinedwith an indication of the training courses presently available and with suggestions about suitable modifications. Sixth, the need for training infrastructure to create a generation of appropriately trained manpower requires ascertaininghow to upgrade existing institutes of hotel management and food craft institutes and whether to set up new institutes of hotel management and food craft institutes. Seventh, there is a need to suggest measures that will help to upgrade training coursesto provide the higher level of skills required. 2
I. ATTRIBUTES OF TOURISM IN INDIA The Indian tourism product India has spectacular natural and cultural tourist attractions and a rich cultural heritage that is over 5,000 years old. There are thousands ofmonument and archaeologicalremains for tourists to visit and enjoy. Theremnants of one of the most ancientriver valley civilizations of the world, theIndus Valley Civilization, are found in India. The Taj Mahal and 16 World Heritage centres and several national heritage sites are located in India. The historical sites and ancientmonuments have an architectural grandeurthat makes them tourism attractions. The topography, natural resources and climate are also diverse. There are land-locked mountainous regions, lush valleys and plains, arid desertregions, white sandybeachesand islands. India's cultural diversity is unparalleled, with a kaleidoscopeof races,languages, religions, customsand traditions found throughoutthe country. Indians have embraced almost all the major religions of the world and India itself has given rise to five religions: Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikh and Tauhid-i-illahi of Akbar. Showing hospitality to visitors is a national tradition. The lifestyles of Indian people are varied and display a cultural uniqueness.Local and national fairs and festivals are full of colour and spectacle. India has some of the best beachesin the world and many are still unexplored, such as the Andaman and LakshadweepIslands. Central India has many wild life sanctuarieswith countlessvarieties of flora and fauna. The geographical diversity of India provides opportunities for outdoor and adventure sports activities, with something for all tastes and interests and every level of experience. Major adventure tourism activities range from trekking and skiing in the Himalayas, river running along the Ganges, water sports in Goa, trout fishing in Himachal Pradeshand Uttar Pradesh,heli-skiing in Himachal Pradesh,and wind surfing, scubadiving and yachting in the Andaman and Lakshadweep Islands. 3 A.
It has beensaid that there is a fair or festival eachday of the year inIndia. Important fairs and festivals include the Pushkar Fair in Rajasthan,the Crafts Mela at Surajkund, Holi in North India, Pongal in Tamilnadu, Onam in Kerala, Baisakhi in Punjab, Bihu in Assam and dance festivals at Khajuraho and Mamallapuram. There are also many forms of handicrafts and arts. Bharatnatyam, Odissi, Kathakali, Mohiniattam are some of the most popular forms of classical danceswhich have their origins in various states. Every dance form has a precise vocabulary of emotions that are displayed by gestures that range from simple moves to complex choreography. India is a treasure trove of handicrafts. Handicrafts from allover India can be found in shoppingplazasand stores,on streetswhere shops sell specialty goods, and local lairs set up overnight can offer exotic choices. Another delight found in India is the cuisine. Each region has its culinary specialty and the recipes are written with expertise and beautifully representedin extensiveliterature. Thousandsof restaurants offer samplesof exotic food to suit all tastes. The variety of architectural styles is vast and provides diverse chronicles of cultures and history. B. Economicsignificanceof tourism Travel and tourism have emergedas significant economic and social activities in the modem world with enormous economic impact. They are seen as a valuable means for economic development and employment creation, particularly in areasthat are rural or lessdeveloped. Tourism has now becomethe world's largestindustry. According to the World Tourism Organization, about 612.8 million international tourists traveled in 1997 and spent aboutUS$ 433.8 billion, accounting for about 8 per cent of total world exports and more than 30 per cent of international trade in services. In 1995, the travel and tourism industry was expectedto provide employment, both direct and indirect, for 212 million people, accounting for 10.7per cent of the global work force, accordingto the World Travel and Tourism Council. Tourism is emergingas a key sector in the Indian economy,where ithas become the third largest source of foreign exchange, after ready-made garments and gems and jewellery. The foreign exchange earnings from 4
tourism during 1997-1998was estimated to be about Rs. 1.1 trillion (US$ 3,173 million). The rate of growth in foreign exchangeearningsfrom tourism is also high. The most significant feature of the tourism industry in India is its capacity to generate large-scale employment opportunities. It offers the potential to utilize natural resourcesand addsvalue to the local architectures and environments of many areas.However, a specialfeature of tourism is its ability to employ large numbers of women and young members of the workforce. Most job opportunities cqme from airlines, hotels, travel agencies,handicrafts and cultural and other tourism-relatedactivities. Direct employment in the Indian tourism sector during 1995-1996 was over 10 million people, accounting for about 2.4 per cent of the total labour force. Forecastsof direct employment in the tourism sector stressits importance as an economic activity, as summarizedin table 1. Table 1. Estimates for direct employment in tourism (million of jobs) estimate 1996-1997 1997-1998 1998-1999 1999-2000b/ 2000-2001b/ estimate 9.19 9.99 10.92 11.93 13.00 NAPT estimatea/ 9.44 10.48 11.74 12.96 14.17 9.15 9.9110.81 11.77 12.80 Report of the WorkingGroupon Tourism the Ninth Five-YearPlan, for June 1996,Department of Tourism, GovernmentofIndia. a/National Action Planfor Tourism 1994. b/Forecasts Tourism has a very positive capital-labour ratio. An investment of one million rupees (at 1985-1986 prices) would create 89 jobs in the hotel and restaurantindustry, comparedto 44.7 jobs in agriculture and 12.6jobs in manufacturing industries.The averagefor the whole tourism industry is 47.5 jobs for an investment of one million rupees.A comparisonof labour/capital ratios in different economic sectorsis shown in table 2. 5 Notes: Source: Modified Trend
Table 2. Labour-capital ratios by sector Labour/capital ratio Agriculture Manufacturing Mining and quarrying Railways Other transport Hotels and restaurants Tourism Annual Plan 1996-97, Department of Tourism, GovernmentofIndia. 44.7 12.6 2.06 0.9 13.8 89.0 47.5 Another important feature of the Indian tourism industry is the contribution to national integration and transformation of the economic lives of the people. Over 144 million domestic tourists, travelling allover the country eachyear, help createa better understandingof people living in other regions of the country and the cultural diversity. Tourism also gives a [mancial incentive to preserve architecturalheritagesand helps the survival of art forms, crafts and culture. Growth of domestic tourism, summarized below in table 3, shows the potential. Table3. Growth of domestic tourism Numberof domestictourists (millions) 1996 1997 1998 19998/ 20008/ 20018/ 120 131 144 157 172 189 Report ofthe WorkingGroup Tourismfor the Ninth Five-YearPlan, 1997- on 2002,Department of Tourism, GovernmentofIndia, NewDelhi. alEstimate Source: Note: Tourism has also become an instrument for sustainable human development with the aim to alleviate poverty, regeneratethe environment, createjobs in remote areasand help in the advancement women and other of disadvantagedgroups. 6 Source:
Growth forecasts Table 4 presents statistics on international tourism in India as measuredby tourist arrivals and the percentage changefrom 1992 to October 1998. 4. International tourist arrivals in India Numberof tourists 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 Percentage change -5.5 1998(up to October) 1867 1764 830 1886 433 2123 683 2283 579 2374 094900 1848 6.9 12.6 7.5 3.8 According to the WTO, international tourist traffic worldwide is expectedto grow at an annualrate of about3.1 per cent from 1995 to 2000 and reach661 million arrivals by 2000. The regions most likely to experience the strongest growth in tourist traffic are EastAsia/Pacific, growing by 6.8 per cent, and SouthAsia, growing by 6.1 per cent. The Working Group constituted for the fonnulation of proposals on tourism for India's Ninth Plan consideredthat an annual growth target of 8 per cent in tourist arrivals was feasible from 1997 to 2002. This would leadto total arrivals of about 3.12 million tourists by 2000, assumingthat therewould be substantial improvements in infrastructure and services. Actual figures show that the forecastswere reliable for 1997and 1998. D. Major constraintson growth of tourism in India Infrastructure gaps While India has much to offer in terms of tourist attractions, the growth of tourism faces major constraints, particularly in the case of international tourists. The greatest constraint relates to inadequacies and imbalances in infrastructure. Infrastructure problems include lack of sufficient airports and airport facilities, inadequateinternationaland domestic air seat capacity, insufficient land transport systems, lack of basic wayside 7 651 1. Table C.
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